Theoretical Physics

TP
>
Volume 4, Number 2, June 2019

The Origin of Gravitation and Electromagnetism
DOI:

10.22606/tp.2019.42004
**Author(s)**
Zhong-Cheng Liang

**Affiliation(s)**
School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, China

**Abstract**
Assuming that protons and electrons are three-dimensional body particles that have only
mass and volume, the volume repulsion can ensure the finiteness of particle density. A scalar potential
and a vector potential are constructed respectively with the mass density and the momentum density.
A set of particle field equations is derived from the scalar and vector potentials with the help of vector
calculus. The equation set is general field equations in three-dimensional flat space, instead of that in
four-dimensional curved spacetime. It is shown that the particle field includes gradient field, divergence
field and curl field. The gradient field predicts both attraction and repulsion between particles, the
divergence field represents the undulation of particles, and the curl field describes the vortex motion of
the particles. It is proven that gravitation and electromagnetism both originate from the interaction of
body particles. The undulation of pure electronic system represents both gravitational waves and
electromagnetic waves. If graviton and photon are regarded as body particles identical to electron, the
electrons are the dark matter in the background of the universe.

**Keywords**
Particle, field, interaction, gravitation, electromagnetism

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